Causes of cystitis

Inflammation of the bladder is easy to recognize, the symptoms of this disease are specific. The patient often experiences urinary incontinence, but they become increasingly productive. It is possible to "squeeze" a small amount of urine, sometimes the blood is mixed with it. The process is painful, there is a feeling of tightness in the groin area.

pain with cystitis

Symptoms of cystitis in women

The incidence of the disease is higher in women than in men. The reason for this is the female anatomy. The causes of cystitis in women are due to the fact that the urethra is shorter than in men with a larger bladder. Increased volume allows girls to urinate less. Urine flow naturally removes pathogens from the urinary tract. Hence the chain: women are less likely to go to the toilet, pathogens entering the urethra are rarely washed out, and a short urine flow is a quick way to "deliver" them to the urinary tract.

Other causes of cystitis in women: microtrauma of the urethra, infections that can penetrate the anus, vagina. Typical signs of the onset and development of cystitis:

  • pain in the lower abdomen;
  • acute pain during urination;
  • burning of the urethra;
  • unexpected, uncontrolled urine flow;
  • urine is dark, sometimes with a mixture of blood;
  • increase in temperature (more severe, in severe cases).
pain with cystitis

Signs of inflammation in men

The causes of the disease in men are different from those in women. The chances of getting sick increase with age. Facilitates the disease:

  • urolithiasis;
  • chronic genital infections;
  • narrowing of the urethra (narrowing or complete closure);
  • weakening of immunity;
  • pyelonephritis or renal tuberculosis.

Symptoms appear as follows:

  • frequent trips to the toilet (up to 40 times a day), but the result is a small amount of disposable urine, about 10-15 ml;
  • urinary incontinence ("drop by drop");
  • difficulty urinating, pain;
  • you should make an effort to empty the bladder;
  • the beginning and end of the process are accompanied by pain;
  • temperature (in acute forms).


Common causes of infectious cystitis are Escherichia coli, less chlamydia, candidiasis, and ureaplasma. In addition to infections, damage to the urethra, hypothermia and chronic diseases, other causes of inflammation:

  • external opening of the urethra is constantly irritated (mechanical);
  • the patient is allergic to intimate cosmetic products, vaginal deodorant, soap, talc, and even toilet paper;
  • In women, when urinary incontinence occurs, one of the causes of the onset of the disease is called psychosomatics, ie the release of experiments on the physical plane is the body's response to problems;
  • Cystitis in a child can cause an anatomical abnormality: urine is thrown back into the ureters and the process of excretion is disrupted.
red urine with cystitis

Hemorrhagic cystitis

If blood contaminants are seen in the urine, the disease is hemorrhagic. Blood appears not only at the end of urination, but throughout the process, and all the liquid turns a light pink color or a cloudy, rusty color (these cases are accompanied by an odor from the discharge). If the bleeding is severe, blood clots are released.

During a long-term illness with permanent blood loss, the patient develops iron deficiency anemia. The causes of hemorrhagic cystitis are viral inflammations. This is not uncommon for older men with prostate adenoma. Exposure to radiation, taking cytostatics (drugs used in oncology, for pelvic tumors) can cause cystitis in the blood. Often the hemorrhagic form of the disease is accompanied by chills and fever.

If you start the disease, not only will anemia develop, but hemorrhagic cystitis will become a chronic form. Start treatment on time. Complications that may be accompanied by bleeding in cystitis:

  • Bladder tamponade, obstruction with a blood clot in the lumen. Urinary incontinence, bladder stretches strongly.
  • Infection: Infection enters the ruptured blood vessels, which can lead to blood poisoning.


Purulent inflammation of the bladder mucosa is the most common manifestation of acute cystitis. At the same time, there is no serious illness. This form of the disease is more common in women. Up to 36 million people are diagnosed with acute cystitis in Russia every year. Symptoms last for about a week and are diagnosed based on symptoms and urine analysis.

Abdominal warming with cystitis


This form of the disease involves persistent inflammation of the urinary tract with temporary remission and exacerbation. Chronic cystitis occurs as a complication of some other diseases, which means a serious weakness in the immune system. Chronic inflammation develops against the background of diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Hypothermia is a trigger for the symptoms of previously transmitted cystitis.

The chronic course of the disease is complicated by malnutrition, stress, hypovitaminosis and metabolic disorders. How the disease progresses is affected by the composition and biological properties of the human microflora. Formally, a diagnosis such as "chronic cystitis" does not appear in the medical record books, and recurrent acute cystitis is a more common form of treatment.

What causes cystitis

The bladder is an organ covered with a special protective mucous membrane, resistant to external influences. The penetration of bacteria and viruses into it is "provided" by the patient himself. The causes of cystitis are infections, but the factors that trigger them are more often associated with a lifestyle in which people reduce their defenses. A long tiring diet, sitting on cold surfaces, constant fatigue, stress - all this leads to disease.


Factors predisposing to the onset and development of inflammation of the urinary system:

  • Even if you really want to, you have a habit of "enduring" and postponing going to the toilet. At the same time, muscle fibers are stretched excessively, blood circulation in the bladder wall is disrupted.
  • Violation of personal hygiene, germs from the genitals, rectum, anus travel to the bladder without obstruction. In this case, prevention of contamination is the best tool for the disease.
  • Foreign bodies in the lumen of the urethra.
  • Tumor in the urethra, bladder.
  • Seasonal decrease in immunity, weakening of the body with various diseases.
  • Menopause, pregnancy, postpartum period.
  • Wear tight, uncomfortable clothing, tight panties and underwear.

Causes of cystitis after sexual intercourse

It is known that after sex, cystitis manifests itself in women as a result of vaginal intercourse. The first to suffer are those in which the urethra is located in front of the vagina, where the urethra is specially located. This is a variant of the norm, but with such a structure of the genitourinary system, the vaginal contents enter the urethra and then the bladder. In this case, the woman and her partner must be careful not to mechanically damage the vagina.